The Backstory Behind a Hospital Bill

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In recent months, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has released a massive trove of 2011 Medicare claims data for inpatient and outpatient procedures.  The spreadsheets containing this data include information on how much thousands of American hospitals billed Medicare for various services and how much Medicare paid the facilities in return. The disparities between what hospitals charge Medicare and what Medicare pays are striking, as are the difference between individual hospital prices.

A hospital in San Diego billed Medicare an average of $82.24 for a type of outpatient eye exam, while a facility in Los Angeles charged $4,187.25 for the same service, even though Medicare paid each about $74. For a kind of upper airway endoscopy, one hospital in Boston billed Medicare an average of $18,735.33, while a different Boston hospital charged $4,622.25. Medicare reimbursed each about $1,700 for the procedure. As Steven Brill explained in his TIME cover story, Bitter Pill, the price list hospitals have for various procedures and treatments, known as the “charge master,” has little to do with the actual cost of individual services. Rather than a simple calculation, there is a story behind the numbers contained on every hospital bill that’s rooted in the history of Medicare policy and individual hospital operations.

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Take a facility called Scott & White Memorial Hospital in Temple, TX. In 2011, Scott & White billed Medicare for more “level 2 hospital clinic visits”— 155,708 in all—than any other hospital in the country, according to data recently released by HHS. Scott & White billed Medicare an average of $135.48 for each of these visits and was reimbursed by the federal government an average of $69.55. On the surface, it appears that the hospital has a suspiciously high level of outpatient services utilization and missed out on some $10 million in reimbursements in 2011 for this outpatient service alone.

But that’s not the case, according to Dr. James Rohack, director of the Scott & White Center for Healthcare Policy. He points to several rules within Medicare that he says are responsible for charge master prices being wildly out of whack at Scott & White and most hospitals across the country.

For instance, Medicare prohibits hospitals from charging the federal government more than they charge any other payer. This means that sometimes the prices charged to Medicare, which hospitals know won’t be reimbursed in full, reflect the highest amount a hospital might be able to collect from a private insurer or a wealthy uninsured patient who pays out of pocket. Medicare also bans hospitals from billing individual patients beyond what is spelled out by their policies. So, if Medicare has a contract with a hospital that says the facility will get $100 for a certain procedure, the hospital cannot collect this amount and also charge a patient for more if its costs extend beyond the contracted figure. These rules, says Rohack, “started the distortions between what is a charge master amount and what is your net pay…hospitals have created an inflationary [price list] to make up the difference.”

(MORE: Bitter Pill: Why Medical Bills Are Killing Us)

Rohack says he wishes Medicare reimbursement was based on capitation, in which hospitals were paid per patient instead of per procedure or hospital stay. This payment method is used in some Medicaid programs and has been popular among some private insurers.

As for why Scott & White billed Medicare for so many “level 2 hospital clinic visits,” Rohack says that reflects the kind of health care facility Scott & White is. A “level 2 hospital clinic visit,” according to Rohack, is typically a 10-15-minute appointment with a doctor or nurse practitioner to check up on a health issue that’s already defined. While in some communities, patients might be most likely to get this service as a private doctor’s office, in Temple, TX, they might be more likely to get it at an outpatient clinic connected to Scott & White Memorial Hospital. The hospital, like other integrated health systems, has its doctors on salary. Rather than be simply an inpatient facility, Scott & White is more of a one-stop-shop where patients can get checkups or have surgery in a single location.

Plus, says Rohack, a practicing doctor and past president of the American Medical Association, an outpatient visit might actually save Medicare money. “As a cardiologist, rather than admitting a patient to the hospital with congestive heart failure, I might see them in the clinic and alter their medications,” he says. Scott & White’s outpatient volume is high, admits Rohack, but its inpatient volume is relatively low. Indeed, Medicare data analyzed by the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care, which compares individual hospitals and regions on a variety of metrics, shows this is true.

Integrated health systems like Scott & White are becoming more common across the country, as hospitals buy up private physician group practices and the health care system consolidates. Part of the reason may be that Medicare, for example, currently pays hospitals more for a typical outpatient doctor visit than it pays a doctor working in private practice. Electronic health records, which Medicare will soon require, is another reason for industry-wide consolidation. A doctor might not be able to afford to digitize his own paper health records and will instead opt to join a large health system, where he can use an electronic health records system already in place.

MORE: An End to Medical-Billing Secrecy?

9 comments
ARTRaveler
ARTRaveler

If you end up having surgery and have no insurance, you will be billed the chargemaster price which is higher than Medicare, Medicaid, or any private insuror will pay and they will go after your home to get their money.  That's another crime in how this "system" (only the Mafia could call what we have a "system") is unfair.  I had shoulder surgery to repair a tendon tear in January this year as an "outpatient".  The billed amount was about $17,500 for surgeon, hospital surgical suite, etc and the amount paid by Medicare and my secondary coverage was less than $2200 and I owed nothing.

SmoothEdward1
SmoothEdward1

Notice how the article focuses on the reimbursement practices of the government when they want to be critical, but invokes the private insurance practice when mentioning something they believe to be better (paying per patient instead of per procedure)? The fact is the private insurance companies reimburse in much the same way, and hospitals purposefully bill way over the reimbursed rate anyway, and the same wildly inflated bills along with huge disparities among hospitals is the norm there as well. 

Bob4grave
Bob4grave

I'm similarly skeptical of the quote that @bobnoakridge mentioned:

"Medicare prohibits hospitals from charging the federal government more than they charge any other payer. This means that sometimes the prices charged to Medicare, which hospitals know won’t be reimbursed in full, reflect the highest amount a hospital might be able to collect from a private insurer or a wealthy uninsured patient who pays out of pocket."

So...because hospitals legally can't charge the government MORE than any other payer, they charge the government at the level of payer that pays the MOST? How is that not the exact opposite of the intent of Medicare? It seems to me that hospitals, knowing their charges are going to get whacked down arbitrarily anyway, are just claiming the maximum rate so they (1) don't leave any money on the table, and (2) can then lobby Congress about how much they are losing if reimbursements don't go up. This is indeed a bitter pill.

bobnoakridge
bobnoakridge

So if I understand this article,Dr. James Rohack, is blaming Medicaid/Medicare for these outrageous prices.Yet in the article he makes a comment that is absolutely disgraceful. " reflect the highest amount a hospital might be able to collect from a private insurer or a wealthy uninsured patient who pays out of pocket." Really,so he admits that his hospital doesn't have actual prices for services rendered.He charges based on what a person can pay.Does anyone else see a problem with this???



fitty_three
fitty_three

I'm interested in seeing what the issue is behind the widely varying charges for the same procedure.  I'm less concerned about the fact that Medicare pays the same regardless.  It seems that what's broken is the commercial aspect of health care with it's wildly varying prices, not Obamacare.

In any case, it's like giants tossing a medicine ball back and forth over one's head - the consumer is intimately connected - especially if things go wrong, but has no chance of ever actually influencing the outcome.

I've been at this for two years, with my wife having contracted sepsis of the spine, and us having run up $2,770,000 worth of bills in the last two years. 

Bob4grave
Bob4grave

In fact, by charging at the level of the highest payer, the hospital is actually charging MORE than any other payer, in direct violation of Medicare's explicit language. Can someone explain why this is not illegal? 

mtngoatjoe
mtngoatjoe

@Bob4graveThere isn't a violation. There is a difference between what the hospital charges and what Medicare pays.

Hospitals have to submit documentation to show what the actual cost of each proceedure is. Medicare reimburses hospitals based on this amount, not the highest amount billed to anyone.

mtngoatjoe
mtngoatjoe

Hospitals are not documenting actual cost for publication to you and me. But by law, they have to provide that documentation to Medicare. Hospitals can charge you and me whatever they want for any proceedure. And the Chargemaster list that each hospital keeps has no actual basis in reality. Hospitals can pick numbers out of a hat to determin what the Chargemaster should list, there's no correlation between the Chargemaster price, the price Medicare pays, the cost insurance companies pay, and the cash on the barrel price.

Personally, I think the crime is that Medicare didn't publish this information sooner. Everybody has known that medical billing is messed up, but we had no idea how bad it is.

Bob4grave
Bob4grave

The existence of a charge/payment disparity is part of the program and not in question. The issue is that hospital are not documenting actual cost, or it wouldn't very widely within the same city for the same procedure. Instead, they document maximum cost, much like the back of a hotel door, which lists the maximum cost that hotel is legally allowed to charge per room--and never do.

But in this case, Medicare clearly requires that hospitals cannot charge the government more than ANY other payer. Stated another way, hospitals are required to bill all payers more than the government. This is a MINIMUM, not a MAXIMUM. I cannot see how acting in the exact opposite of a law is legal.